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The Construction of Femininity in a Postcolonial State: Girls Education in Singapore By Ee Moi Kho

An internet link was provided to complete an online electronic survey on Google platform using a quick response code on mobile devices. The online survey consists of 34 questions that were categorized into 4 main sections, namely 1) social demographics 2) attitude on safe distancing measures 3) precaution practices and 4) perceptions of COVID-19. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine women’s precaution practices among six independent socio-demographic variables, including age, ethnicity, education, front-line jobs, history of miscarriage and type of antenatal clinic .

Under domestic law, she said, an international convention could not be invoked as part of the internal law, unless it had been incorporated and implemented by the Government. She said her delegation would do its best to give full and frank replies to questions. Singapore was serious about advancing the de facto status of its women and their equality with men, and it was in that spirit that it had ratified the Convention. From that perspective, she had been persuaded that more and better data was needed to track progress, and the representatives would seek to address that in next report. YU-FOO YEE SHOON said they had taken note of the experts’ expressions of serious concerns, particularly with regard to Singapore’s reservations to the Convention. Singapore had progressed, in part, because it understood there was much to be learned from others. It had kept an open mind and had engaged in candid discussions at home and abroad on international norms and the way forward for Singaporean society.

In Singapore, education was free, and funding was provided to community groups to help children from humble and disadvantaged homes. The question really must be whether meritocracy in Singapore had resulted in better opportunities for women. Indeed, statistics had shown that the gender gap was closing in many important areas, including with respect to wages. This is the first comprehensive study of the impact of girls’ education on their construction of their gender identity. This gender ideology that is reflected in the education policies and curricula for schoolgirls emphasized patriarchal values and upheld traditional feminine virtues such as gentleness, docility and submissiveness. At the same time education and curricular policies encouraged girls to study the ‘hard’ sciences, like the boys.

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Singapore would continue to participate in the regional and global forums regarding transnational organized crime. Another Singapore representative responded to questions on Article 3 of the Women’s Convention, concerning measures to ensure the full advancement of women on an equal basis with men. The representative said that Singapore, together with its neighbours in the Association of South-East Asian Nations , had signed the ASEAN Declaration of the Advancement of Women on 5 July 1988 in Bangkok.

  • As breast feeding requires close contact, direct breast feeding may be of concern in infected mothers.
  • Psychological sequalae of this pandemic may pose a greater conundrum than its clinical aspects.
  • Conversely, two reported cases of possible vertical transmission showed evidence of immunoglobulin M for SARS-CoV-2 in the neonatal serum .
  • The RCOG suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic increases the risk of perinatal anxiety, depression, and domestic violence in pregnant women .
  • 6.1.1 Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services, by urban/rural.

A Foreign Worker Unit had been set up in the Labour Relations Department to resolve disputes between foreign workers and their employers over terms and conditions of employment. Foreign domestic workers were allowed into Singapore on the understanding that they were transient workers. Singapore was a small and densely populated country with a very real physical constraint. All foreign workers were fully aware of the conditions under which their work permits would be issued. To related questions, she said there was no undue or unreasonable delay in the time taken to investigate and prosecute complaints of criminal conduct lodged by a female migrant worker. Those contracts provided the core employment terms such as salary, rest day, medical benefits and a description of their duties. Neither local nor foreign domestic workers were covered by the Employment Act because those worked in a home environment, which made enforcement extremely difficult.

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments in Singapore from 2012 to 2021

She said the working terms and conditions for civil service employees was not covered by the Employment Act, but by instruction manuals, which provided better terms and benefits than those in the Employment Act. To the expressed concern that workers on contract and those working in export promotion zones would be denied employment benefits, she said that those zones had not been designated to exclude workers from the mainstream of the economy. The delegation also explained the exclusions to the compulsory education act, saying that the number of students exempted was very small. Scholarships were open to all students and were awarded on the basis of individual merit. The Public Service Commission usually received twice as many applications from male students as from female ones. Continuing on Article 5, a representative highlighted the various criminal procedural and evidential provisions, which afforded protection to witnesses who testified against traffickers.

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It has been assumed that because girls and boys are given equal opportunities in education, there are no important gender issues in the sphere of education. This book questions such an assumption and problematizes the role of education as a liberating force for women to investigate if education has indeed liberated women or entrapped them in subordination in a patriarchal society.

Thus, establishing public awareness of COVID-19 using an online survey is easily achieved in a developed country like Singapore using information technology for disseminating and receiving information on social media. We reported the results from a rapid online cross-sectional survey related to COVID-19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Singapore.

To promote family life, married couples were depicted as sharing responsibilities, including household chores and child-rearing. Concluding the meeting, the Chairperson of the Committee, Charlotte Abaka , thanked the delegation for the detailed information that had been provided. She said the Committee had taken note of the country’s remaining reservations and remained concerned that those contradicted the spirit and the letter of the Convention. One of the Committee’s recommendations was for Singapore to amend some of its policies to enable all Singaporeans, regardless of their gender or nationality, to enjoy equal status and equal rights. Today, the Senior Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Community Development and Sports of Singapore, Yu-Foo Yee Shoon, noted the expert’s serious concerns. She said her country had kept an open mind and had engaged in candid discussions at home and abroad on international norms and the way forward for Singaporean society.

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